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To this day, the word malinchista is used by Mexicans to denote one who apes the language and customs of another country. [39] Not surprisingly, many publications and republications of sixteenth-century accounts of the conquest of Mexico appeared around 1992, the 500th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's first voyage, when scholarly and popular interest in first encounters surged. [citation needed] Catholic missionaries campaigned against cultural traditions of the Aztecs, and the use of psilocybin mushrooms, like other pre-Christian traditions, was quickly suppressed. [44]:326–52, Cortés then approached Tenochtitlan and mounted a siege of the city that involved cutting the causeways from the mainland and controlling the lake with armed brigantines constructed by the Spanish and transported overland to the lake. [44]:204, In one of his responses to Cortés, Moctezuma blamed the commanders of the local Aztec garrison for the resistance in Cholula, and recognizing that his long-standing attempts to dissuade Cortés from coming to Tenochtitlan with gifts of gold and silver had failed, Moctezuma finally invited the conquistadors to visit his capital city, according to Spanish sources, after feeling as though nothing else could be done. Due to some horrifying instances of abuse against the native peoples, Bishop Bartolomé de las Casas suggested importing black slaves to replace them. Hand-colored 19th-century woodcut reproduction of an earlier illustration. Conquistador: Hernan Cortes, King Montezuma, and the Last Stand of the Aztecs. [55] Cortés also contrived to have his men name him military leader and chief magistrate (judge) of the expedition. Cortés along with five of his captains and Doña Marina and Aguilar, convinced Moctezuma to "come quietly with us to our quarters, and make no protest...if you cry out, or raise any commotion, you will immediately be killed." Howard F. Cline, "Evolution of the Historia General" in, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Iberian Peninsula and South America (1762–63), Banda Oriental and Rio Grande do Sul (1762–63), Narrative of Some Things of New Spain and of the Great City of Temestitan, The True History of the Conquest of New Spain, Fall of Tenochtitlan § Siege of Tenochtitlan, History of Morelos, Conquest and Revolution, Historiography of Colonial Spanish America, "Tactical Factors in the Spanish Conquest of the Aztecs", https://www.thoughtco.com/hernan-cortes-conquest-of-aztecs-timeline-2136533, https://itunes.apple.com/us/book/conquest/id593921773?mt=11, http://www.mexicoarcheology.com/cempoala/, "Affirmative action and Hernán Cortés (1485–1547) : Mexico History", "The Columbian Mosaic in Colonial America", History of the Conquest of Mexico, with a Preliminary View of Ancient Mexican Civilization, and the Life of the Conqueror, Hernando Cortes, University of Wisconsin Digital Collections Center, La Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España, Independence of Spanish continental Americas, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northernmost France, Law of coartación (which allowed slaves to buy their freedom, and that of others), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Spanish_conquest_of_the_Aztec_Empire&oldid=1008274242, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2017, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Vague or ambiguous time from October 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2016, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2021, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2011, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, February 1519 – 13 August 1521 against the, 1428 – Creation of the Triple Alliance of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan, 1492–93 – Columbus reaches the Caribbean; start of permanent Spanish settlements, 1493–1515 – Spanish exploration, conquest, enslavement, and settlement in the Caribbean and the, 1503–09 – Moctezuma's coronation conquests, 1504 – Hernan Cortés arrives in the Caribbean, 1511– Spanish viceroy in the Caribbean appoints, 1510~ Francisco Vazquez de Coronado was born, 10 February – Cortés expedition leaves Cuba, taking Hernández de Córdoba's route. "[44]:223, While in the Axayacatl palace, the conquistadors discovered the secret room where Moctezuma kept the treasure he had inherited from his father. September – Tlaxcalteca assault the Spanish camp by day, and the Spanish respond by raiding unarmed Tlaxcalteca towns and villages by night. [44]:82 Until Cortés's marriage to his second wife, a union which produced a legitimate son whom he also named Martin, Cortés's natural son with Marina was the heir of his envisaged fortunes. The native texts of the defeated Mexica narrating their version of the conquest describe eight omens that were believed to have occurred nine years prior to the arrival of the Spanish from the Gulf of Mexico. Archived from the original on 2012-10-08. Nevertheless, Cortés set sail, beginning his expedition with the legal status of a mutineer. Velázquez then sent orders for the fleet to be held and Cortés taken prisoner. 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