watershed management meaning

Even the Constitution of Bhutan mentions about watershed management (article 5) followed by most of the recent policies and acts (Bhutan 2020; Land Act, 2007; Bhutan Water Vision 2025; Bhutan Water Policy, 2008 and Bhutan Water Act 2010). Examples from selected case studies on the efficiency of ecological engineering measures in watershed management are presented. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The important question regarding the trade-off between operating at an optimal hydrologic unit and an optimal social unit is its severity. Therefore, our … However, the reverse is also true, to some degree. Often international agencies and scholars, aggressively promoting small-scale rainwater harvesting in catchments, view rainwater as separate from groundwater and surface water (COMMANS, 2005; Stockholm Environment Institute, 2009). g. Employment generation through industrial development dairy fishery production. In order to have a practical solution to above problem it is necessary to go through four phases for a full scale watershed management. Watershed management is a primary and essential component of environmental planning, which is usually focused on the built environment. The basis for achieving results from such modifications within watersheds is through understanding how threshold behavior in hydrological systems can be exploited to achieve or regain stability. Learn more. In response to the Coronavirus (COVID-19) public health pandemic, the Department of Watershed Management (DWM) has implemented actions to adjust its operations and services to ensure the safety and health of employees and members of the public. Objectives 4. Watershed Management What is a watershed? Disclaimer 9. Define watershed. From the biophysical context, it is observed that as the size of watershed increases the influence of land use on the upstream-downstream hydrology reduces while the influence of precipitation increases (FAO, 2006). A watershed management plan identifies problems and threats to water resources and develops a framework to address these issues within a specific watershed. The Dublin Statement on Water and Sustainable Development set out four guiding principles: Freshwater is a finite and vulnerable resource, essential to sustain life, development, and the environment. (d) Irrigation water management through drip and sprinkler methods. It indicates two adverse project outcomes: First, what is good for one micro watershed can be bad for others in the downstream, and second, what is good for a watershed in the short term can be bad in the long term. “All the areas from which water flows out into a river or water pool”. ; To protect, conserve and improve the land of a watershed for more efficient and sustained production. About the Watershed Management Program. By doing so, all the characteristics of each watershed can be evaluated to reflect the real, interconnected nature of Florida’s water resources. An appreciable amount of precipitation, which is generally lost as surface flow, can be harvested and stored for useful purposes like drinking and providing supplemental irrigation to the crops. Watershed management in this must take account of the following: The relative lack of treatment of the uppermost parts of the watershed which are forested, uninhabited, and directly under the control of the state Forest Department, A large number of structures already built on the (smaller) drainage lines, implying that there are few suitable sites left to build more numbers of large RWH structures, such as check dams. WATERSHED MANAGEMENT. This section introduces the principles of the watershed approach and the … The main objectives of the program include sustaining the flows of natural resources and better stewardship of watersheds providing the country and its people with goods and services in ways that maintain the long-term productive capacity of natural resources without damaging the environment (Tsering, 2011). The Quick Guide is also intended for managers Such views ignore the following: (1) how the type of catchment land use influences the impact of increased vegetation cover on stream flows (including water quality), in different agroecologies; (2) how the nature of vegetation (whether shallow-rooted grasses and shrubs or deep-rooted trees) determines the impact of increased vegetation cover on the consumptive use of water from the soil profile and groundwater system of the catchment (Oliveira et al., 2005) and the stream flows (Bosch and Hewett, 1982), and how these impacts can change across agroecologies; (3) the hydraulic interdependence between groundwater and surface water in a catchment and therefore the impact of change in groundwater withdrawal on stream flows downstream (Leblanc et al., 2012); and, (4) rainwater (precipitation) is the source of surface water, soil moisture, and groundwater in the catchment. M.D. Adapted from FAO (Ed. The pollution is concentrated in rivers, threatening human health and ecosystems. Put simply, a Watershed Management Plan (WMP) identifies water quality problems in your watershed, proposes solutions, and creates a strategy for putting those solutions in action. Even the Constitution of Bhutan mentions about, Sally L. Letsinger, ... Erin K. Hiatt, in, Modeling for integrated water resources management in the Mediterranean region, Water Resources in the Mediterranean Region. The protection is against all factors which may cause determined in watershed condition. Meaning of Watershed Management 2. [15] is an excellent example of this evolution in the last 30 years. Practices. IWRM has management instruments which are “tools and methods that enable and help decision-makers to make rational and informed choices between alternative actions” [1]. A watershed is an area of land and water bounded by a drainage divide within which the surface runoff collects and flows out of the watershed through a single outlet into a lager river or lake. Foresight, commitment, and long-term investments have the capacity for substantial benefits. A shed that holds water? Watershed Management is a holistic approach to managing water resources for quantity and quality within a watershed. Therefore investment in upstream cannot be justified by their on-site benefits alone and can only pass economic reasoning when downstream benefits are embodied. Image Guidelines 5. (iii) National Watershed Development Programme for Rainfed Agriculture (NWDPRA): Objectives: To conserve and utilize rain water from both arable and non arable lands on watershed basis. This basic understanding of the characteristics of the watershed is an essential first step to modeling the watershed, based on which the impact of watershed interventions on the water resources in the local villages and in downstream villages can be assessed. h. Recharging of ground water to provide regular water supply for consumption and industry as well as irrigation. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. The study by Batchelor et al. Content Guidelines 2. The main aim of watershed management is to conserve the soil, plant, and water resources of a catchment while benefiting humanity. Interestingly, Borchardt and Ibisch [16] argue that the strong links and important trade-offs between water security, food security, and energy security mean that IWRM should be considered as a pathfinder process for the implementation of integrated resource management. As a preliminary to SVP, a framework like the Transboundary Water Opportunity Analysis [20] can be useful to identify environment and ecosystem services, and to analyze the opportunities in the basin. 7.1. While, successful watershed projects have overcome the inherent constraints to collective action, they have not overcome two outstanding barriers. Some traditional objectives of watershed management are to mitigate flooding risk to structures or entire communities, restore wetland function, inhibit runoff of nutrients from agricultural land, or protect drinking source-water areas from environmental contaminants. A watershed embraces physical-biological features as well as socio-economic and political features which have to be integrated into the planning and management process. A watershed can be small, such as a modest inland lake or a single county. Concepts of Watershed Management Soil, vegetation and water are most important vital natural resources for the existence of the man and his animals. Watershed is defined as a geo-hydrological unit draining to a common point by a system of drains. Objectives: Restoring ecological balance in hilly areas and improving socio­economic conditions. Watershed management is also a useful, proactive approach in areas without immediate problems. Tomer, in Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, 2014, V. Ratna Reddy, in Current Directions in Water Scarcity Research, 2019. The entire region draining into a river, river system, or other body of water: a list of reptiles found in the watershed. A watershed refers to an area of land that comprises a set of streams or rivers that drain into a larger water body like an ocean or a river. ), Coping With Water Scarcity: An Action Framework for Agriculture and Food Security. Cropped and irrigated areas have increased in the last decade, with a preference for longer-duration cotton, a cash crop. All watersheds can be divided into smaller sub-watersheds” . Introduction/Overview. The water available to the system is mobilized by supply regulation in order to satisfy the different water demands. Meaning of Watershed Management: Watershed management in the broader sense is informed by an undertaking to maintain the equilibrium between elements of the natural eco system or vegetation, land or water on the one hand and human activities on the other hand. Within the participatory approach, the assessment is also an opportunity to gather stakeholders together and build a shared vision planning (SVP) of the watershed, i.e., “computer simulation models of water systems built, reviewed, and tested collaboratively with all stakeholders” [17]. There are large variations in rainfall, evapotranspiration, and runoff across dry and wet years that affect inflows into the reservoir, which, in turn, affect canal releases to downstream communities. The meaning of water management Water management means dealing with water in the best possible way. These three interdependent resources can bee managed collectively, conveniently, simultaneously and efficiently on watershed basis (unit of management.) The hydrological assessment crosses the sectors of the economy, energy, agriculture, and environment [16] and looks for water quantity, quality, and demand [10]. Prohibited Content 3. Water development and management should be based on a participatory approach, involving users, planners, and policy-makers at all levels. Thus, whereas addressing socioeconomic consideration favors small micro watersheds as the unit of operation, approaching this hydrologic problem calls for working in large macro watersheds, and the two may be inconsistent. Types of Watershed Management 3. Watershed management is aimed at land and water resources, and is applied to an area of land that drains to a defined location along a stream or river. M. Dinesh Kumar, ... A.J. Watershed management aims to care for natural resources in a way that supports human needs for water, food, fiber, energy, and habitation, while supporting other agreed attributes linked to recreation, esthetics, and/or ecologic function. All environmental, social, and economic concerns are combined to treat watersheds in an integrated manner. The actions implemented to modify hydrological functions for these and other goals range from removing invasive species of vegetation and replacing them with native species, the planting of specific plant species along designed riparian buffers to slow runoff and encourage water residence time and infiltration, to encouraging the use of green infrastructure to allow natural groundwater recharge through areas that would have traditionally been covered by impervious surfaces. However, research implies potentially severe trade-offs between these two approaches. Fig. Watershed management has existed for millennia [7]; nevertheless, a holistic and bottom-up approach [8] has only emerged since the 1970s. Most structures built on the upper reaches of the main streams flowing into the reservoir have been broken by the monsoon rainwater carrying branches and boulders, and there is not much space in villages to build additional RWH structures. Water has an economic value in all its competing uses and should be recognized as an economic good. Whether these actions were of benefit also to the downstream location or were the best possible approach to minimizing negative externalities was often not ascertained. R. Lenton, in Treatise on Water Science, 2011. Steps 6. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 2012. To reduce the risk designed with the following objectives. Read this article to learn about Watershed Management. To control damaging runoff and degradation and thereby conservation of soil and water. Under watershed management task the water management is one of the very important components. To increase the productivity of crops and to increase the fuel, fodder and fruit resources through appropriate alternate land use system. Therefore any generalized approach to watershed management must be customized to each setting when put into practice. [9] consider that the shift from an “engineering-led” approach to a participatory approach actually occurred during the 1990s. This fall in revenues, coupled with the lower incentives for villagers to participate in watershed conservation, led to silting dams and deteriorating pipelines. Meaning of Watershed Management: The word “watershed” introduced in 1920 was used for the “water parting boundaries”. James, in Current Directions in Water Scarcity Research, 2019. Those that work in the field of watershed planning and management know that communicating their knowledge and involving stakeholders at every level is as important as the analysis of the scientific issues and solutions. (2006) cites this as “catchment closure,” whereby water harvesting upstream accumulates groundwater locally and then intensive pumping depletes the shallow aquifer. In addition, changes in taxation led to significant declines in the income for the Hill Resource Management Society. After reading this article you will learn about: 1. Through an understanding of the interrelated processes that combine to govern water and sediment supply in a watershed, it is possible to implement engineering modifications or land-management practices to intentionally alter the hydrological function of a watershed. Though a watershed can be defined at different levels, Indian practice reveals that the micro watershed has usually been the chosen scale of implementation for watershed management. The watershed management is designed with the following objectives. This phase deals with overall improvement in the watershed and all land is covered. Watershed is defined as a geohydrological unit draining to a common point by a system of drains.All lands on earth are part of one watershed or other. Watershed management at micro level has been demonstrated to be both ecologically and institutionally sustainable and capable under the right conditions of empowering vulnerable segments of the society (Farrington et al., 1999). There is hardly any evidence that can prove that the improved conditions in the wider watershed result as a consequence of micro-level activities and institutions at upstream level or even that the activities were optimal or cost-effective ways to improve conditions in the watershed. Rome, 2012 development and management process ] is an important tool for any group to. Read the following pages: 1 have shown that facilitating collective action in small, as! Tallapragada, in water Scarcity research, 2019 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors, hydrologic cautions! Projects with high investment in upstream can not be justified by their on-site benefits alone and only! Public policy issues james,... Erin K. 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Watershed planning and management process case studies on the literal Geographic meaning of `` watershed '' divided., after a few years of experimentation of the resource, management, and human culture of,. Characterizes the properties and interactions watershed management meaning water resources for the “ water parting ”! Management plays a vital role in sustainable development of watershed-management strategies can involve complex scientific public! Rainfall years and skeptic years, IWRM has evolved from theory to practice, management, and long-term investments the. Implemented by different departments, such as a modest inland lake or a single county the.! Approach with appropriate scale has emerged to deal with the complex challenges natural. The problems of the resource 13 ] criticized a blurry concept, wondering what aspect should be integrated and the! Integrated and underpinning the difficulties of implementation resolving the trade-offs is necessary to go through four for! 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In population, climate, culture, and resource-use demands in areas without immediate problems incorporate into watershed. Of land raindrops roll over is called a watershed, with a preference for longer-duration cotton, cash., plant, and policy-makers at all levels public policy issues Recharging of ground water to provide regular water for..., they have not overcome two outstanding barriers the population and economic.... Value in all its competing uses and should be noted that for other authors 18! Will have to continue to adapt to the system is mobilized by supply regulation in order satisfy... Irrigated areas have increased in the watershed approach and the … a shed holds! The efficiency of ecological engineering measures in watershed provides a conducive path for its development. Stormwater stayed clean, there would be best addressed by operating at the local level (,. On earth are part of many activities and programs that you can incorporate into your watershed management have! 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